Eem bm servicearea
5.6 Service Areas and Design Decisions P4all as an inclusive ecosystem for persons with disabilities offers a unique and superior virtual place for stakeholders and the possibility to “plug-and-play” services” as an independent mediator and facilitator between other actors, by serving them a wide arrange of standardized service interfaces. In this context, standardization should not be confused with rigidity. On the contrary: Such interfaces are to be flexible, convenient, safe and predictable. In the table below we give some examples of services areas that influence design decisions due their effects on the volume of interactions between member of the ecosystem and due their effects in the attractiveness and use of the software ecosystem. Table 21: Examples of Service/Areas Type of service/area Side
Access (Both sides) Usage (Both sides) Services related to everyday life not delivered by the national insurance systems User /service provider √ √
Brokers for assistance services i.e. transport, information, leisure housing User/ content provider √ √
Intelligent based alarm system that helps individuals to remember basic activities, i.e. take medicines, wash teethes, close the doors, turn off electronic devices etc. User/ content provider √ √ Leisure services Virtual exercises, virtual trips, films
User/ content provider
Virtual educational places adapted to people with disabilities
Seller/ buyer √ √ √ √ Note: √ indicate that the entity or the individual either access or usage of the software ecosystem.
Some organization will, however, offer free entry to all individuals, some other will ask to pay some fees to access to the services offered, and some will only need to pay fees to access to some elementary services not provided by the health insurance systems. In such circumstances, it is necessary to consider a) If the services are complex and need interaction between several suppliers b) If the services demand to pay fees for transfer even when no fee for using the system is listed or show the services will be demanded c) If the services can be considered as complementary and paid by an organization or social insurance or any other third party d) If the providers demand some kind of “royalty” or fee e) How to handle situations in which cardholders are subject to penalty fees, such as for exceeding credit limits or for late payment f) To discriminate the possibility to include advertisement to support services if some countries to not allow the inclusion of advertisement for social or welfare services g) Identify limiting “front-running,”. In the case a broker receives a large purchase order from a customer, and being able to have control mechanisms before the customer order is executed h) Develop and visualize rules and regulations in the case the behaviour of the members of the ecosystem affect the value of it as a whole. Some organizations have rules that govern the appearance of cards issued by members, to provide some uniformity for the common brand, as well as to prevent members from using the brand inappropriately. i) Tools to control that prices are below marginal costs or below zero is the intention if to develop a non-profit ecosystem. j) Mechanism to control the chicken egg phenomenon and attract a critical mass. Give access to all, “divide and conquer” and invest in one side or the market to lower the costs of consumers and stimulate them to participate. However, providers of services have many times limited resources to build up professional online sales and advertisement channels on their own. Even if they already have a presence on the web, plugging into P4All could serve as an attractive supplement or alternative.
5.6.1 List of requirements and design decisions 188.8.131.52 Design decisions Requirements Management Offer an architecture that allows several points of entry, ensuring several actors have access to the ecosystem and avoiding intra-side externalities i.e. in the case potential sellers/buyers or providers being negatively affected by the presence of competitor sellers/buyers and vice-versa. Support multiple interactions externalities, allowing interactions between several partners. Congestion and Optimization At a given size expanding the number of customers on the ecosystem can result in congestion that increases search and transaction costs, to optimize searching for partners, software ecosystems may find that it is best to limit the size of the participant stakeholders and prescreen the customers on both sides to increase the probability of a match. Multi-Homing Use multi-homing alternatives for both sides (consumers and producers) and follow up if end-users rely on a single software platform for their devices, personal computers etc., while developers write for several platforms or not in order to identify which profile is sustainable and which is not. Cross market effects Neutralize these effects through development of a mechanism to offer exclusive contracts to prevent multi-homing if suppliers can profit from increased demand and thus increase the price of the services or a mechanism that supports payment of a premium to make potential rivals less attractive. Tying Develop mechanisms that allow introduction of implicit subsidies on one side of the market in order to solve coordination failure and as a tool to solve the demand coordination problem. Chicken egg problem The “chicken and egg” problem is how to get this “network effect” started when you have neither buyers or sellers. To solve the it the software ecosystem will need to support : Economic incentives that can persuade one group to sign in advance Eventual use of penetration prices Accept stakeholders that follow CSR policies Have low initial access barriers The process of joining your network should be as effortless as possible. Active recruitment of strategic customers. This is particularly important if there are customer groups that depend on one another (e.g. retailers and consumers). It may be sensible to build up a critical mass among one customer group, before attending another (i.e. retailers before consumers). Develop intelligent agents for making customers come back. Once a small installed base is in place, it is important to stimulate activity in the network (it is less the numeric customer base that is of value, than is the actual use of the network). Search engines to attract someone with both chickens and egg. Test to find someone who can buy the entire ecosystem all at once – a city municipality. Different types of network. The ecosystem demands also a series of technical solutions i.e. intelligent agents that guarantee the well use of the resources, the matching between users and traffic, guarantee security and that can retrieve information and manage media and archives. Further, any method for payment works only if buyers and sellers are willing to use it The P4All infrastructure will need to support from barter and the consequent agreements on the standard medium for exchange, to other payments alternatives such as subscriptions, fee, honor cards, credit and payment cards, and special rules contractually defined at different countries etc. The challenge is to determine who pays. In the case an organization pays for a subscription that benefits all its members and how to identify which individuals have right to access to which services. A problem in such circumstances is that at the moment to use a service the buyer will need to demand the service in the name of the organization. It is, however, unclear who will be the responsible to control that the right individuals receive the service, and that the payment system will works. On one hand this is an issue that can affect the sustainability and the ability to trust in the platform, or the other hand the platform cannot take the responsibility of the transactions performed by the different actors. Table 22: Example of the Requirements to Support Delivery and Demand for Services N. Event Input Output Description of activities 1 Client registration Customer details Users are updated on the database 2 Client submits a demand for a service Service speciﬁcation and details Requirements task is uploaded on the business ecosystem 3 Qualiﬁed suppliers offer the service Service speciﬁcation and details Requirements task and corresponding tools are made available to the client 4. Service supplier deliver eventual documentation Requirements speciﬁcation and documentation Client receives requirements speciﬁcation and documentation 5 Clients requests further information on task details Task detail inquiry Further clariﬁcation Client receives questions and provides feedback to the suppliers 6 Client makes payment Secure Payment Secure Payment Client has funds required for buying the service Suppliers are informed and funds transferred supplier account 7 Client submits complaints or suggestions/evaluations about the supplier Complaints/Suggestions Feedback from administration of the business ecosystem Complaints or suggestions are put into consideration and necessary adjustments made.
184.108.40.206 Functional Requirements 1 Be embedded in the business ecosystem. 2 Accept and register users. 3 Provide substantial information for users. 4 Require business-partner-related data from suppliers and clients respectively. 5 Contain member profile, i.e., where users/clients can view details of tasks, search for tasks, upload requirements specifications, and update account information and inquiries. 6 Contain client-specific tabs on the client profile, i.e., task description, task management, task submissions, task selections and inquiries. 7 Have a messaging function. 8 Provide users with timely updates on task suggestions and changes. 9 Enable clients to define and customize task templates. 10 Enable clients to define criteria and tests for selection of suppliers. 11 Inform the client the number of suppliers that are eligible for tasks based on specified task criteria. 12 Contain task description tools such as a text editor, tables, images (upload), video(upload), numbering and bullets, and document upload. 13 Enable the client to modularize a task into subtasks with corresponding payments, with the system showing the percentage of the payment that goes to the supplier. 14 Store a history of all users’ task details. 15 Require payments from a client before a task can be published if the law of the country demands. 16 Enable clients to pay the services at the moment to receive the service. 17 Have an Application Programming Interface (API) for developing custom tasks. 18 Have a ranking system for users. 19 Have desktop and mobile applications where users can work offline. Non-Functional Requirements 20 Be usable on all browser and operating system platforms. 21 Have a user-friendly and simple interface. 22 Be readily available for usage. 23 Be robust in order to accommodate as many users as possible at a time without the system performance being affected. 24 Be efficient in error handling and prevent loss of data. 25 Be secure. 26 Have flexible design tools. 27 Ensure and maintain a high-level of integrity among users. 28 Address any form of abuse or breach of legal conditions.
And …offers Flexible supply chain The software ecosystem needs to support a flexible model, that must meet unexpected demand and therefore faced with high demand peaks and long periods of low workload. This supply chain model is characterized by adaptability, which is the capability to reconfigure internal processes in order to meet a customer's specific need or solve a customer's problem. The model typically is used by service companies that focus on handling unexpected situations, perhaps even including emergencies. Due to the nature of such events, customers appreciate not only the speed of a supplier's response, but also its ability to tailor solutions to their needs. Ensuring flexibility needs four main capabilities: extra capacity of critical resources, rapid-response capability, technical strengths in process and product engineering, and a process flow that is designed to be quickly reconfigurable. For this supply chain model to be successful companies should keep critical resources (for example, pumps for companies that provide flood recovery services, or metal machining equipment for spare-parts manufacturing) available on stand-by. This may require pooling of critical resources—including with those of competitors—because these companies address unexpected situations that could easily result in demand exceeding capacity, and it is not economically feasible to have unlimited capacity. Strong collaborative relationships with key suppliers are necessary for companies to understand at every moment their current "available to promise" inventory and capacity. Adaptability is based on having many resources of low to medium capacity, instead of a few resources of high capacity. A well-designed order-entry process is critical, in order to ensure a proper understanding of the customer's situation and requirements. 220.127.116.11 Areas and design considerations The ecosystem sustainability will lead to shared prosperity. However, simultaneous multiple options for payment, contracts, delivery of services will be needed. The cost structures and management of maintenance of the services needs also to consider, different tax regulations, fluctuations of currency and changes in political decisions and even legal issues (multijurisdictional etc.). Marketing/Distribution Channels How will consumer demands be communicated to potential suppliers/producers? What are channels that can be used to deliver services and products? Drive down cost of acquisition with tools that take the guesswork out of your sales approach and target prospects who are already interested in digital solutions. If they’re not ready to buy just yet, marketing automation has the ability to nurture prospects with timely and relevant content The business ecosystem should allow support heterogeneity, several points of entry, season changes and flexible logistic processes In terms of goods and services, all channels need to be supported and are possible options. Primarily, services will look to digital channels for delivery. Goods will be based on digital commerce and specification but will require physical delivery. The section above on business model implementation in an EU context details many of the cross-border and EU-specific concerns that must be considered. 3D printing should be considered as an option for delivering physical goods. Selection Process How will candidate products/services or suppliers/producers be chosen? The goal should be for P4A to be the infrastructure that supports the ecosystem to such an extent that it becomes the standard platform for inclusive goods and services. This includes developers, suppliers, service provides, and those with unmet needs. Efforts should be made to target and gain the inclusion of important players in this space based on reputation and market share within the European and global context. Important principles to apply are stimulate the inclusion of suppliers that indicate social responsibility and that indicates which ethical rules they follow. Further, the role of watchdog’s network has to be visible to facilitate the choice of the suppliers . Marginalized (Suppliers & Demand) Who are the potential suppliers/producers that are currently marginalized and what is needed to enable these suppliers/producers to meet marginal consumer demands? The idea of growing from small successes relies on building a reputation and expanding all parts of this multisided market with intentionality. P4A cannot start be being all things to everyone. It should select and succeed in selected areas (both from domain and geographic perspectives) and then build on that success. To follow the priorities that EU-commission has done in some areas and start offering services that are not included in social security systems can be a good beginning. The use of vote systems to identify services that enables people with disabilities to be included in the everyday life can be an alternative that helps also suppliers to success while expanding the offering of innovative services. Entrepreneurship Opportunities How will suppliers/producers establish viable service entrepreneurships? The scenarios and personae identified in D103.1 discuss how an individual can participate in various ways in the ecosystem and can transform their interaction from being someone who comes to find a service to being someone who is able to provide services to others, either on a volunteer or paid basis. The P4A infrastructure must enable and encourage users and other stakeholders to evolve in their engagement with the ecosystem enabled by this infrastructure to create entrepreneurial opportunities. Support social innovation activities where the potential customers in collaboration with suppliers define, design and prototype innovations Social Service/Public Role/Volunteers/ Crowdsourcing What is the optimal role for public and social services and how are these most effectively and efficiently deployed? How can consumers be engaged as potential suppliers/producers? How are volunteer networks and crowdsourcing integrated into the supply chain? The first question is addressed separately above in the section on the implementation of business models within European community and its approach to social services. The role of the knowledge and policy network is relevant to sample, organize and allow consumers and suppliers engagement in the development of the business ecosystem. Legal issues, jurisdictional issues, intellectual property issues as also of importance when identifying specifications and alternatives The use of crowdsourcing, even when it is an innovative solution, it is not regulated and supported in all countries. In the Scandinavian countries there is much discussion about the sustainability of this model. Alternative solutions as i.e. subvention, card of honors can be also needed. Mainstream Trends How can mainstream trends be leveraged? General IT and ICT trends and specific AT (assistive technologies) trends as identified by many of the major players are identified below. At this point, the goal is to provide and share them with the rest of the team. Many of the goals of P4A and the functional packages of P4A’s infrastructure are already leveraging many of these trends. Individual functional packages and sub-projects should review this list and incorporate these possibilities during development. The trends should also continue to be monitored during the project as they will change. General IT and ICT Trends IBM • Big Data • Cloud • Mobile • Social Gartner • Ubiquitous Computing • Internet of Things • 3D Printing • Advanced, Pervasive, Invisible Analytics • Context Rich Systems • Smart Machines • Cloud • Software Defined Infrastructure • Web Scale IT • Risk-Based Security McKinsey • Social • Internet of Things • Big Data • Anything Can Be a Service • Automation of Knowledge Work • Integrated Digital/Physical • Me + Free + Ease (personalization; no cost; easy to use) • eCommerce • 3 Billion More Digital Citizens • Government, Healthcare, Education Google • Self-Driving Car • Google Research – number of papers published by Google researchers o Artificial Intelligence (419) o Algorithms (393) o HCI/Visualizations (326) o Natural Language (269) o Machine Perception (250) o Security (198) o Information Retrieval (186) o Data Mining (159) o Software Systems (153) Cisco • “Datafy” – everything should be/become data • Cloud • Mobile • Security as a Business Process • Software as the Critical Element • Switching; Software Defined Network (SDN) • Video; Screens Everywhere • Transportation • New Technology • Industry Consolidation AT Trends (mostly education based) Microsoft • Sensory Enhancements • Smart AT • Screen Readers • Twitter as a Research Tool Assistive Technology Training Online Project • Technology Assessment • Caregivers’ Needs • Universal Design • Training • Funding • Maintenance NCTI (National Center for Technology Innovation) – based on number of recent articles referenced • 21st Century Skills • Autism • Awards • Broadband • Games • Innovators • Internet • Internet Safety • Online Learning • Policy • Portable Technology • Social Media • Social Networking • Stimulus • Universal Design [UD] IP Strategies What is the impact and optimal integration? More research and recommendations about the tradeoffs among the various IP regimes for inclusive ecosystems is needed This should actually become information that is documented, available, and part of the Developer Space as these issues and questions will not just be faced by the P4A team and component and system developers but by anyone working in the development of accessible and accessibility products and services. Feedback/and evaluation How are consistency, reliability and quality assurance supported and maintained? How will consumers review and provide feedback regarding services/products delivered? Ranking Products and Services that Scale ¬Check out how agencies and media companies rank the scalability of their tools and services The Infrastructure starts with the foundation which is those systems that are always available to the functional packages of the P4A infrastructure. Included are three layers surrounding the database(s) – Usage, Quality, and Social. Those layers represent the need to capture the consistency, reliability, quality assurance, consumer review, and feedback for all of the functional packages and elements of the P4A infrastructure. The layers are separated to allow for each type to be collected, analyzed, and shared in different manners. Additionally, the Quality Infrastructure (documented separately in the P4A architecture) captures and (partially) automates these requirements for the quality improvement and measurement of P4A components (SP2). Feedback and evaluation should be allowed at any time and support data privacy, anonymity and even free text comments. Furthermore, specific ethical rules at the country level has to be considered. For instance, in some countries is not allow to add advertisement to social services, EU-countries demand the identification of the connection between suppliers and country as in the case of pay pal system that have a specific page where customers can contact representatives and use its own language and a country specific web address. Transparency and publication of evaluation is also of much importance for the sustainability of the market