EEM terms

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Economic and Design Models

Common Words, Terms, Phrases

(these need consistent definitions -- they need to be most meaningful to us and what we are doing rather than being overly generic.)


Market is defined as An actual or nominal place where forces of demand and supply operate, and where buyers and sellers interact (directly or through intermediaries) to trade goods, services, or contracts or instruments, for money or barter. Markets include mechanisms or means for (1) determining price of the traded item, (2) communicating the price information, (3) facilitating deals and transactions, and (4) effecting distribution. The market for a particular item is made up of existing and potential customers who need it and have the ability and willingness to pay for it.


Ecosystem is defined as a group of interconnected elements, formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their environment. This includes any system or network of interconnecting and interacting parts, as in a business: An inclusive ecosystem has three different types of ecosystem that have to be related to each other. They are: the business ecosystem, the digital service ecosystem and the software ecosystem. The business ecosystem is a dynamic structure of organizations that work together in a specific core business, in this case in the delivering of services for disable individuals, creating value in a network of actors. The digital service ecosystem is a socio-technical complex system that enables service providers to reach shared goals and gain added value by utilizing the services of other members in the ecosystem. The software ecosystem has some common elements with digital service ecosystems, such as self-regulation, networked character and shared value. However, the definition of a software ecosystem suggests that in general there will be some technology underpinning the ecosystem, whereas in a digital service ecosystem the members are not bound to a shared development platform or technology.


An infrastructure is the basic systems, services, and components needed to operate a system, society, or organization. They are the "necessary but not sufficient" parts of a larger, generally more complicated system. In the case of GPII, the infrastructure is the collection of parts needed to support and enable the inclusive ecosystem (see below and elsewhere for the definition of that).

Inclusive Ecosystem - vv/kms/IDRC

Inclusive/Inclusion - IDRC

Inclusive Design - IDRC


According to EU’s definition, disability is that a person is considered to have a disability if he or she has a long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairment which, in interaction with various barriers, may hinder his or her full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others [11]. Definition of Disability according to Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and EU.


A “stakeholder” is “any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the solution of the problem addressed by the network.


(from Ancient Greek “arrangement and method”) is the science of identifying and naming species, and arranging them into a classification. The Dynamics of Development taxonomies have been applied to the classification of biological species and organisms, but the concept has been adapted to refer to the classification of many complex phenomena.


Some networks seek to provide platforms for other networks to organize. This category is completely new, enabled by the Internet, which provides the technology infrastructure for platforms. Platforms are more than technology. They include some kind of technology but also organizational capability that facilitates collective action.


Covers various match-making activities such as services. It also covers traditional exchanges such as, internet sites for business-to-business, person-to-business, and person-to-person transactions, various kinds of brokers (insurance and real estate) and financial exchanges for securities and futures contracts. Exchanges include also a variety of businesses that provide brokerage services. These include publishers (readers and authors), literary agents (authors and publishers), and individual based services (people who go to get some individual, and people who sponsor, or sell the services).

Business models

Were defined in a previous report as “a description of how an organization creates, delivers and captures value of boundary-spanning activities (performed by a focal firm or others) focusing mainly on value creation as well as on value capture” (Zott et al, 2011). 

Multi-side platforms

Were defined in a previous report as: “an organization that creates value primarily by enabling direct interaction between two (or more) distinct types of customers”. They are characterized by bringing together two or more interdependent groups of customers and by creating value through network effects.